In 1996 main efforts of LCTA were concentrated on the needs of the Institute's research programme in computing, information and program resources provided with:
One of the main LCTA tasks is creation of a unified information environment of JINR and its Member State institutes on the base of modern computing, networking and information technologies.
The Laboratory took an active part in elaboration and realization of interdepartmental programme "Creation of a National Computer Telecommunications Network for Science and High Schools".
In 1996, the realization of the project CONET-96/98 started. The realization of the project will make it possible to create networking, computing and information infrastructure at JINR, meeting the modern requirements upon an international scientific centre. Operation and development of the networking, computing and information infrastructure was provided in spite of the difficult financial situation.
At present, the service that the Laboratory supports and provides for the JINR laboratories can be divided into two main parts: computer communication link to outer world - INTERNET; JINR corporate information network - INTRANET and computing service.
The improvement of the JINR Computer Complex (CC) is in progress. The JINR CC provides central networking, computing, information, file, e-mail service.
Without supplementary expenses the central processor units of ES-1066 have been replaced by two-processor IBM4381, allowing to extend a disk space and to enlarge the complex capacity, saving in electric-power resources.
Presently the JINR central servers include:
Data on the use of the central servers by the JINR subdivisions are presented below.
Use of the JINR central servers by the Institute subdivisions (hours)
JINR LAN was developing very intensively (more than 2000 PCs were connected to the LAN). A project of the JINR LAN modernization on the basis of fast (ATM) network technologies has been worked out. This project was approved by the users' consulting committee, organized by a decision of the JINR Programme Advisory Committee on nuclear physics and particle physics, aimed to conduct a coordinated policy of the development of the networking, computing and information infrastructure (NCII). A gradual realization of this project has begun, the transfer of the LAN onto modern technologies (fibre optics, twisted pair) is in progress. The modem pool for JINR employees to have direct access to the JINR LAN from their home PCs has been created. The JINR Network Operation Centre (NOC) has been put in operation.
In 1996 the on-earth digital communication link was modernized. The throughput of the INTERNET network has been upgraded up to 128 Kbit/s. The total traffic of the information exchange between JINR and the world is about 2 Gbyte/day. A fibre optic line between JINR and RSCC "Dubna" (passing through the International University "Dubna") has been built for the JINR connection to the high-speed communication link. This will upgrade the throughput up to 2 Mbit/s.
The JINR network management centre has a user friendly WWW-interface to collect various information about network status, channel performance and load, etc., during any period of time. Below are given data on protocols distribution in the network in 1996.
Protocols distribution on the INTERNET channel in 1996
Work on maintenance of the standard software for the JINR users on the platforms MS-DOS, WINDOWS, UNIX was developing in progress. A project has been worked out on develop the HEP environment (CUTE) intended for the users which are in need of enormous computing resources for modeling, data processing, scientific calculation, engineering and designing electronic devices, experimental set-ups, software development and results visualization, as well as high-speed computer communication facilities, information service, and large programming complexes based on the UNIX platforms. The realization of the project has started. Introduction of the operating systems of a new generation, WINDOWS NT and WINDOWS 95, continued.
In 1996 all required user's programs used on the CDC computer, which was removed from service in 1995, were adapted for CONVEX, VAX and PC. A special program package has been worked out. It allows one to restore the lost source programs and extract the programs and data for them from magnetic tapes of ES computers and CDC. This is a laborious and non-trivial task.
The development of the WWW-servers was in progress in 1996. About 20 WWW-servers operate currently at JINR. Stable day-and-night access to all open international data bases and information systems has been provided through the JINR LAN and its external computer communication link to INTERNET. The information available on the JINR WWW home-page as well as references to the resources of the local and external servers has been improved and extended essentially. In accordance with the project "BAFIZ-96" a new information server was fitted with the WWW software, DBMS ORACLE and an interface. Within this complex a data base on the accelerator set-ups available in Russia has been arranged for the section "Physics Data Bases and Information Server"  (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Main page for accelerator data base
Further increase in efficiency of the remote information access mainly depends on a technological upgrading of a throughput of the network. Both the general-purpose data bases, containing information on science, technology, education and culture, and specialized data bases (for example, on the LHC experiments and other projects) on the bibliographic data of publications of the JINR Publishing Department, full text systems (for example, the archive system of electronic journals published by the international centre ("Institute of Physics Publishing") as well as bases for designing and engineering work are attractive for users. A way of connecting the INIS and PPDS bases to the WWW information system has been worked out in the framework of application of the database system technology to solving the problems of theoretical and experimental physics . It is also within the plan of establishing at JINR the Information Centre for the institutions of high energy physics and fundamental nuclear physics according to the project "BAFIZ-96".
The maintenance and development of hard- and software of the program complexes "Financial Account of Accountable Personnel", "Banking Operations Account", etc. have been carried out jointly with the Automated Management Systems Department of the JINR Board.
In 1996, research on computational and mathematical physics was performed. The results of the research were published in the well-known journals, proceedings of the scientific conferences and preprints - more than 150 publications.
In order to improve the current Monte Carlo cascade-evaporation model of high-energy interactions of particles and nucleus, a systematic comparison of this model with experimental data has been performed . A code for the modeling of multi-fragmentation processes in high-energy nuclear collisions is developed. A Monte Carlo code for modeling of particle and ion transport in sectioned ("ventil") subcritical electronuclear systems is created .
Research on the structure of light exotic nuclei was in progress. It was carried out jointly with FLNR, St.Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics of PSU and the Kurchatov Institute. Software has been created which allowed building optic potentials for the neutron-rich isotopes of Li on the basis of the full M3Y-effective interaction in the formalism of the density matrix .
Calculations were performed within research on resonance phenomena in subatomic physics (development of automodeling and similarity principles, research in effect of the form of the potential and the sort of the boundary conditions on the resonance hadron decays) .
Computations have been performed within a quasiparticle photon model of reduced probabilities of M1 and E1 jumps in the odd deformed nuclei as well as computations of the force distribution of E1 and M1 jumps in 238U [7, 8].
Based on the deterministic and the stochastic approaches, the nonlinear effects of condensed systems and nonequilibrium adsorption phenomena in an adsorbate-adsorbent open system were investigated. A new model has been applied to the description of the nonequilibrium gas sorption .
The calculations of the fine and hyperfine splitting of the energy levels of antiproton helium, He+ in states with orbital momentum 30 l 40 have been performed on the basis of the improved adiabatic approach .
The algorithms for transformation of systems of nonlinear algebraic equations into canonical involutiv form and for construction of finitely presented Lie algebra's and superalgebras were improved .
A Baecklund transformation for the Landau-Lifshits equations was found for the first time . An algorithm was designed for computation of Feynman integrals singular at zero momenta, and a new kind of recurrence relations for Feynman diagrams was obtained .
The pioneer computation of the forth-order coefficient in heat-kernel expansion of non-minimal pseudo-differential operator in curved space and in the presence of gauge fields was successfully performed, which is of importance in quantum gravity and in Yang-Mills theory . The developed software surpasses in efficiency known similar programs.
A combined tool for debugging LISP programs based on common use of GNU and LISP GSL interpreter debuggers was created.
A new modification of the CANM has been suggested for solving the nonlinear problems . Suggested was a new formulation of the inverse problem of quantum scattering theory on a reconstruction of potential over the phase shift values on the family of segments in (l, k)-plane. A numerical method for solving this problem has been developed and realized. A theorem has been proved about a stability of the regularized numerical method of solving the inverse problem of the quantum scattering theory .
To investigate the quantum systems with a large number of identical particles in the framework of formalism of integrals over the trajectories, an algorithm and a computer program intended for finding thermodynamic characteristics of such systems in three-dimensional space has been created .
A numerical approach to study of the 3D nonlinear polaron problem for a finite constant of coupling has been suggested . Algorithms with the corresponding software for numerical study of various field models of theoretical physics (light and heavy quarkonia, binucleon and acoustic laser) have been created .
Robust and asymptotically optimal methods for solving elliptic equations with highly anisotropic coefficients and the Navier-Stokes equation have been developed to apply to the problems of structural mechanics, porous media, incompressible flow .
A new string model for quark forces in QCD in which the stiffness of the QCD strings is negative, has been suggested and completely studied. In this model all consistency problems of the earlier rigid string are absent, while the attractive properties are preserved. In the range of low and moderate temperatures the temperature dependence of the effective string tension and an approximate deconfinement temperature have been derived .
A two-dimensional planar ferromagnetic model in deformed matter has been presented as a topological Chern-Simons gauged model. The reductions on the symmetric spaces have been described. Some class of the exact quantum solutions and the statistical transmutation of topological solitons into anyons have been obtained .
In 1996, new methods for experimental data processing systems based on the application of nonparametric statistical methods, artificial neural network, cellular automata, wavelet-decompositions and fractals, were developed at JINR in close cooperation with other research centres.
In collaboration with LNP(JINR) and INFN (Italy), for the DISTO collaboration, new approach to the charged particle track recognition with the help of a specialized cellular automaton and the algorithms for identification of secondary charged particles and events based on the artificial neural network were developed .
Jointly with LPP (JINR), within the EXCHARM collaboration a simple algorithm for identification of the events with a secondary vertex and an effective method for the track extraction associated with the secondary vertex based on a selective asymmetry of the track gross errors in the event were developed . A neural network of a direct flow type - multilayer perceptron - is used as a nonlinear discriminator for effective selection of useful events.
An original method for separation of the circles of the RICH detector, tested on the model and the real data of the NA-45/CERES experiment, has been suggested . A method for separation of two overlapping gaussian-like distributions has been developed. The algorithms developed surpass in efficiency the available standard programs . An algorithm for vertex searching in multiparticle events based on the elastic neural network has been developed for the NEMO experiment. Four Java Applets for the NEMO experiment were developed and shown on its JINR home-page.
In the framework of the DIRAC experiment, being prepared at the PS accelerator at CERN, a program for modeling the GEANT-DIRAC physical setup has been designed. This program was accepted as an official collaboration program.
3D magnetic field expert computations have been performed for the L3 magnet for the ALICE experiment (Fig. 2) . Numerical optimization of the actively screened dipole magnet coil geometry has been carried out. Fast multilevel algorithms based on multipole expansion of the integral operator kernel were constructed for the coil 3D magnetic field calculus. Coil geometry with strong screening has been obtained . An algorithm for the particle impulse reconstruction based on the CANM has been worked out. Calculations and approximations of the magnetic field have been made for the magnetic set-ups STORS, EXCHARM, CRION-C.
Fig. 2. The main field component in middle plane of the superconducting dipole magnet for the ALICE experiment
In 1996 the LCTA staff took an active part in developments of computing for the CMS and ATLAS experiments. The network and information (WWW) support was provided for the JINR CMS infrastructure. In the framework of the development of the software for the planned LHC experiments, important scientific and methodological results were obtained at LCTA in 1996 which are related to engineering and designing the CMS experimental complex and to the preparation of the program of physical investigations on LHC (CERN). Software have been created for processing the experimental test calibration data from track detectors including the cathode-strip chambers. On the basis of the results of modeling and processing the data obtained in the expositions on the accelerator at CERN, the estimates of the coordinate accuracy (the error does not exceed 70-90 mkm) and the resolution (2.0 ns) of the prototypes of the coordinate detectors of the muonic stations of the CMS installation have been determined. Applying the developed programs for recognition, identification, determination of the events parameters and statistical analysis, some characteristics of the physical processes of passing particles in the heterogeneous media have been determined. The estimates of energetic resolution of the calorimeters under various conditions, mutual effects of the set-up's components on such operational features of detectors as efficiency and accuracy, have been obtained. The methods and tools developed at LCTA for computer and software support of data-handling systems based on the local PC network, are intensively applied to a series of experiments at the EXCHARM facility . Software support for experimental data processing system (calibration, identification and determination of particle tracks parameters, frame event identification) has been created. Architecture, mathematical and software support have been developed for a parallel scalable system for a lot of data processing in the particle physics experiments (PARIS-96 system) .
In 1996 the LCTA staff members performed the following work for organization of the training process at the JINR University Centre (UC): maintenance of the computers working under DOS + NICE + WINDOWS95 operating systems and the UNIX server; modernization of the lecturer's workplace in the UC Conference Hall.
A WWW server has been installed, and a basis has been prepared for representation of the relevant UC information. The server is incorporated into the system of the JINR's and internal servers.
A project of modernization of the UC computer complex has been completed.
The LCTA international cooperation was continued. In 1996 two International conferences were organized:
The cooperation of JINR and HMI (Berlin) has resulted in receiving the computer facilities for the modernization of the VAX-cluster at JINR. The modernization allowed one to increase its performance, to expand the memory and the operating possibilities.
By agreement with CERN, the LCTA specialists provide:
In accordance with the agreement with the Research Centre Rossendorf (FZR) works were carried out on:
In accordance with the plans on the development of the muonic trigger for the ATLAS project in cooperation with CERN and INFN (Italy), algorithms of the second-level muonic trigger have been developed. Modeling and tuning the algorithms was done in the ALTSIM (DICE3, ATRIG, ATRECON) environment. Algorithms for computation of P under the trigger conditions by taking the magnetic field and new geometry into account, have been developed . A procedure of realization of the trigger algorithms has been proposed for the convoy computing conditions by using the modular algebra methods and programmed logic integrals technologies (FPGA).
Together with the Trigger/DAQ ATLAS team (CERN), a project on the software development at LCTA for collaboration on (B&F)SW DAQ ATLAS has been worked out, and jointly with CERN's AT and PS divisions - a configuration data base for the Booster PS.
Jointly with SPS/LEP division (CERN), the monitoring system for the Control System LEP has been developed on the basis of LabVIEW.
Jointly with the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences), a computerized optic desk based on the CCD chamber is being developed for monitoring the calorimeter microelectrode for the ATLAS experiment at CERN.
Jointly with the Higher Technical School (Aahen, Germany), investigation has been performed on the introduction of the C-language programming package FPLSA into the programming system of GAP computer algebra developed in Aahen.
Jointly with the Institute of Physics (Liege, Belgium) and the University of Karlsruhe (Germany), work on development of algorithms and programs for studying Hamiltonian coupling systems for quantum calibration theories was performed.
Together with DESY (Zeuthen, Germany), the joint investigations on the development of constructive computational methods for multiloop Feynman diagrams for massive particles are in progress.
In collaboration with INFN (Italy), CERN, ULB (Brussels), University of Basel and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) the development and studies on new physical experiment data processing methods are in progress.
Jointly with the University of Rostock (Germany), work on creation of the effective computing schemes and software for numerical study of the effective QCD models at finite temperature and density as well as applied to heavy ion physics are carried out.
© JINR Laboratory of Information Technologies , Dubna, 1997T.Strizh