In 1999, the research activity of the Laboratory of Computing Techniques and Automation covered two first and two second-priority topics of the "Topical Plan for JINR Research and International Cooperation in 1999". The Laboratory staff participated in 18 more topics of the Topical Plan in collaboration with other JINR Laboratories. Main results of the investigations performed have been published in the well-known journals, proceedings of the scientific conferences and preprints. More than 100 scientific publications, conference reports and JINR preprint were published and presented in the year 1999.
In 1999, all JINR Laboratories put into operation the network equipment for the high-speed JINR backbone based on the ATM technology. Thus the ATM backbone of JINR LAN has been realized and is operating now. The JINR Computing & Networking Infrastructure is shown schematically on the Fig. 1. Systematic work on the LAN management was performed by the Network Operation Centre (http://noc.jinr.ru/). The rules for users of the JINR Computing & Networking Infrastructure have been worked out and must be approved by JINR Directorate.
Fig. 1. Scheme of JINR Computing & Networking Infrastructure
Since 1997, JINR has served as a RBNet node and uses RBNet facilities and DEMOS provider for external telecommunications. The main task of 1999 to increase the telecommunication channel capacity and throughput within the frames of the programme for National Computer Telecommunications Network was fulfilled.
The change-over to the worldwide channel RBNet was done. Today JINR uses fully the 2Mb/s channel to Moscow M9-IX . That means 1,5Mb/s for the Russian networks integrated in RBNet and other 512 kb/s of the granted capacity in the international networks using TELEGLOBE as a main RBNet partner. For this purpose an agreement has been signed with ROSNIIROS (the Russian Institute for Public Networks). If the operation of the channel shows its reliability and effectiveness, an increase in its throughput for JINR will be discussed.
The satellite computer communication link RADIO/MSU-DESY is expected to be used for cooperation with the nuclear physics centres CERN, DESY, etc. in frames of the RUHEP community.
The table below shows the main JINR servers which are under LCTA maintenance:
|Router||JINR - gw -1||CISCO AGS+|
|Provision of the JINR's backbone operation
|ATM ROUTER server
ATM System Manager
SUN SPARC 5
|Domain Name Server (DNS), NEWS,
MAIL-RELAY, Modem pool
|SUN SPARC 20
|MAIL-SERVER||SUN Ultra 10|
|FILE SERVER + MSS
|Visualization and network monitoring
server HP Open View
|Central Data Base server||DBSERV||DEC ALPHA 2100|
|Administrative Data Bases||ADM|
SUN SPARC 20
|Electronic library (JINR Library,
Publish. Dept., Photo archive)
|General purpose servers
DEC ALPHA 2100
|Servers of applications
|SUN ULTRA 1
The channel of the CONTACT-DEMOS company is utilized as BACKUP for the reliable operation of the JINR's network. 256kb/s at 5% load has been agreed (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. The current state of the JINR communication links
In 1999, a computer program was created for processing statistics of using the JINR external computer communication links. This allows one to analyze data in the interval of the requested dates sampling by subnetworks, subdivisions and leaders in the subdivisions, and to extract the main sites which they had the biggest traffic with.
Below is given the relative intensity of the CONVEX, SPP200 computing servers and the modem pool used by the Institute laboratories during 11 months of the year 1999.
|Convex C-3840||51 %||4 %||2 %||29 %||14 %||-||-||-||-||6389 h|
|Convex C-220||4,6 %||4,2 %||1,6 %||42,9 %||30,4 %||2,9 %||12,8 %||0,5 %||-||4462 h|
|SPP2000||51 %||1 %||9 %||6 %||8 %||2 %||20 %||-||3 %||34621 h|
|Modem pool||0,5 %||10,0 %||15,1 %||16,1 %||19,6 %||23,7 %||5,7 %||7,7 %||0,6 %|
CMS Computing Support
During the last 3 years JINR was the only RDMS (Russia-Dubna Member States) CMS institute where the complete support of CMS computing has been organized. The software environment of the Sun CMS cluster at JINR is similar to the Sun CMS clusters at CERN. JINR specialists from several JINR laboratories (LPP, LHE and LCTA) participating in the CMS experiment have had a full possibility to accomplish their studies for CMS at JINR, at Sun CMS cluster (a number of users- about 50 persons): simulation of setup and processes, beam test data processing etc. The SPP-2000 computer has been also widely used for the CMS activities as there exists the proper environment including CMSIM the main CMS simulation program. Almost 6500 hours of the SPP-2000 processor time were used for CMS studies at JINR in 1999. The centralized archiving of working design documents (in particular, design drawings) has been organized for supporting RDMS CMS design activities of JINR, IHEP(Protvino), and HTTC (Minsk, Belarus). The further support of the official RMDS CMS www-server (http://sunct2.jinr.ru) was provided during the year: a lot of new documents on RDMS CMS activities have been located at the server.
The main points in Computing for LHC Experiments are:
To provide information and computer support of the JINR participation in the experiments at the installations of CERN, DESY and BNL, adaptation the technology for creation of object-oriented applications and data bases (GEANT4, Objectivity/BD, ROOT) was in progress in 1999. A program library LHC++ which is oriented on various types of OS and includes the components listed above (including OODBMS Objectivity/DB) has been received from IT CERN and installed at the JINR machines (SUN-cluster of the RDMS collaboration, two Windows NT stations).
Investigations for paralleling computations
In 1999, the LCTA staff members performed experimental study of MPI-technology for paralleling computations on a multiprocessor SPP-2000 computer. With the help of the LCTA an all-purpose computer program GAMESS for modelling a molecular structure of a substance was successfully transferred to SPP. For the first time a problem of paralleling computations in very large programs has been solved at JINR. At present the program is capable of using all the available SPP processors simultaneously. Another example is a paralleling of computations in the MICODE program. It should be noted that the work was done without specialized program packages. The available OS Unix only was used. Despite this circumstance, the speed of computations grows proportionally to the quantity of the processors used.
Maintenance of the JINR Program Library:
A number of issues has been solved in the field of information management, namely:
External data bases (bibliographic, full text, factographic ones) which are of particular interest for the research under way at JINR, are as follows: data bases and documentation prepared by the collaborations ATLAS, CMS etc.; PPDS (data base on elementary particle physics, Russian participants - IHEP, ITEP and JINR); HEP-SPIRES (data bases of electronic publications in HEP); unified base for CERN preprints and Los Alamos HEP collection; RPP (materials of Review of Particle Physics); INSPEC (bibliographic base on physics, electronics, computer technologies), etc.
One of the most important activities was the development of the system of WWW/FTP servers at the Institute's subdivisions and the maintenance of the main WWW/FTP Server of JINR. In the framework of this activity a reference division Physics Information Servers and Data Bases was developed.
Among the activities related to the main JINR and LCTA servers (http://www.jinr.ru) (http://lit.jinr.ru), the following work should be noted: actualization of the divisions in accord with the main scientific results and the programs of JINR activities; information on conferences, schools and workshops held at JINR; News; updating the presentation about JINR and Dubna.
In 1999, the activities within the RFBR grant for electronic libraries and development of the information system for the JINR Library and Publishing Department included the following: introduction of a new system Liber Media to maintain the JINR Scientific Library and its readers, maintenance of the Library Web-site; formation of electronic collections with Web - interface to provide access to them (for bibliographic databases of the JINR Library, full-text publications of the JINR Publishing Department and photoarchive).
Finally, according to the plan and taking into account the requests of the JINR Board, the development of soft- and hardware tools has been carried out to provide work with administrative databases. Some of this work was performed together with STD AMS, JINR. This is particularly true for the following information systems: Topical plan for JINR research and international cooperation; Monitoring of the JINR Basic Facilities operation; Consolidated report on finances at JINR's subdivisions for the JINR Accounts Department; Law Information for the Public Library; Accounting of persons to be accounted, at the JINR Accounts Department; Cash Accounting; JINR report to the Pension Provision Foundation; Consolidated register on salaries and wages of the JINR staff members including those working on short-term contracts.
New more effective and simple modules of the programming complex have been designed for modelling nuclear physical processes in a substance exposed to high energy particles and nuclei . The properties of various variants of the designed electronuclear installation "PLUTON" have been studied by way of mathematical experiments due to the type and the configuration of the reflector, the type of the fissionable substance and target . Integral high-energy nuclon-nucleus cross sections for mathematical experiments with electronuclear facilities have been obtained. Parameterization of the integral cross sections el, nonel, tot for the elastic, nonelastic and total proton- and neutron-nucleus interactions was considered at medium and high energies. On the basis of this parameterization a code was created for the interpolational calculations of the integral cross sections for arbitrary target nuclei at proton energies E=1 MeV - 1 TeV and neutron energies E=12.5 MeV - 1 TeV .
In collaboration with the Royal Technological Institute (Stokholm) and on a basis of the created data base, a precised version of "Electronic guide to cross-sections" has been designed. It provides a way for calculating a cross-section of pion-and nucleon-nucleus interactions for various values of mass and charge numbers of nuclei in the energy range of 10 MeV - 1000 GeV. The new version allows one to perform much more fast and precise computations of the electronuclear processes. Figure 3 shows how well the agreement is between the data of the guide and the experimental points .
Fig. 3. Cross-sections for n+207,2
Pb. In the first figure the upper, intermediate
and low curves are the calculated tot, el, nonel. In other figures the upper
and low curves are tot and nonel. Points are experimental data
In the series of works  problems of data processing from Cherenkov detectors of the RICH type were considered. The main stages of data processing are expounded on the basis of the mathematical model of the RICH data. On the first stage of measurement clustering in order to obtain photon hits, two new methods of hit accuracy improving are described: numerical approximation method and the wavelet analysis method. The main efforts are focused on the approach of direct processing of raw RICH data, which is especially actual for the high granularity RICH detectors like CERES and COMPASS. The raw data approach is based on applying of the robust technique at both stages of the further data analysis: for Cherenkov ring recognition and for particle identification. This technique is based on a least-square method with special recalculated weight functions depending not only on the distance of pads from the fitted circle but also on the signal amplitudes in pads. The proposed methods lead to a reliable parameter reconstruction from measurement and are then successfully used for the particle identification (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. CERES RICH image of Au-Pb event and
simulated image of two overlapping rings with 100% of noise.
Darker pads relate to higher amplitudes. Circles indicate a fitting result
The problem of modelling the magnetic systems containing superconducting screens was considered (Fig. 5). The nonlinear volume and boundary integral equations were proposed for a description of distribution of magnetization and surface currents. A special investigation was performed for digitization of equations and for solving nonlinear problems .
Fig. 5. Numerical results for ALICE set-up
magnetic system modelling without
and with a superconducting screen
The experimental programs of acceleration of the short-lived radioactive nuclei are widely realized in the world (CERN, GANIL, RIKEN, Gatchina, Dubna). The life-time of isotopes varies from microseconds to hours. The process of diffusion of nuclei from the target is the slowest process while transporting the reaction products of interaction of the primary bundle with the target. The mathematical modelling of processes of diffusion from target and of processes of nuclei passage on the pipe is carried out to study and optimize the target characteristics for the FLNR experimental programmes. The dependence of diffusion time exit of the nuclei from a cylindrical target and of diffusion time of nuclei by the pipe  upon the geometric sizes of a target is simulated. The simple analytical formulae describing these dependencies (associations) are constructed.
A bicubic model for the local smoothing of functions related to pivot points (marks) of a searching surface has been constructed. Such an approach allows reducing the dimension of a matrix of normal equations more than twice. The algorithms constructed by using the offered model can be used both in applications and development of global methods of smoothing and approximation of surfaces .
A numerical investigation of relativistic QCD equations for a bound-state problem with coulomb and linear potentials was in progress. These models are described by three-dimensional relativistic equations with various generalizations of coulomb and linear potentials in the momentum space. Algorithms and codes are developed for numerical investigations of these equations. The modified generalized continuous analog of Newton's method is used .
A process of division of a nuclear cluster into constituents was described on the base of an elastodynamic model. The issues of stability were studied, too .
Numerical and analytical investigations for modelling the + - atoms dynamics were performed together with physicists from LNP for the DIRAC set-up. These investigations are important for the experiments on the life-time measurement for this system .
A discrete spectrum of the two-center Coulomb problem of He+ system was studied numerically. To solve this problem, a finite-difference scheme of 4th-order and the continuous analog of Newton's method was applied. The algorithm for calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions with optimization of the parameter of the fractional-rational transformation of the quasiradial variable to a finite interval was developed .
The integral boundary conditions for the time-dependent Shroedinger equation describing an atom with the laser interaction in dipole approximation was formulated. For numerical integration of the Shroedinger equation, these exact conditions may be used to replace diffuse absorbing potentials or mask functions. This method allows one to reduce substantially the size of the space domain where the integration is carried out numerically .
Within the work on computer algebra, a number of new programs have been created which have no analogy due to the novelty of the algorithms embedded. Algorithms of Dirac method for computation and separation of relations for dynamic systems of a polynomial type have been created and realized in the Maple system language . Algorithms have been created of the most general methods for completion of nonlinear algebraic equations and linear differential equations to involution and realized in the Mathematica system language .
A computer program written in the C language for computations of cohomology of algebras and superalgebras Li of vector fields is far in excess of the best computer programs of analogous purpose ever written worldwide in the Reduce and Mathematica systems languages .
Software has been designed at LCTA which allows the users of the system REDUCE to use a large number of numerical routines written in C and FORTRAN in symbolic-numerical computations. A symbolic-numerical interface of the Standard LISP interpreter - GSL together with debugging and profiling tools of the dynamically loaded object modules for symbolic or numerical computations has been developed and realized .
In collaboration with LPP physicists work was done on creation of a system for registration, collection, processing and monitoring of data from the experiment EXCHARM. The work was rewarded with the Second JINR Prize of 1999 in the field of methodical and engineering research.
A synthesis of soft- and hard-ware platforms has been realized for modelling and processing the data taken from the particle physics experiments. Thanking the funds coming from RFFR (grant 98-07-90294), the local computer cluster RISC (Extended Integrated System of Computers) has been modernized. One of the basic properties of the local cluster - the process of its reconfiguration and scaling - allows one to move aside the state of their moral aging which is one of the main disadvantages of the alternative approaches. The local cluster RISC is applied as an instrumental and, what of particular importance, effective purposeful tool for solving the problems of processing physical data. All mathematical processing of the experimental data obtained at the EXCHARM installation is carried out at this cluster . The data banks - the results of mathematical processing of initial experimental information - have been generated and transferred to the EXCHARM collaboration participants for a further physical analysis.
The cluster RISC is also used for modeling (the inverse problem) the experiments on studying the processes with charmed and strange particles at the U-70 accelerator in Serpukhov. Thus, we have obtained and put into practice the typical high-efficient and promising solving in the area of computing the wide class of physical experiments.
A multi-fractal analysis of the images obtained by "Galileo" mission to Jupiter in 1997 has been performed at LCTA in cooperation with the Space Research Institute, RAS. The spectrum of Renyi dimensions Dq calculated for a given set of conditional colors shows the crack network on Europa surface to be multi-fractal. This supports the hypothesis that the cracks are produced by strong internal load, since the brittle fracture experiments on solids performed in terrestrial conditions give similar dimension spectra .
In coloboration with Salvay Institute (Brussels, Belgium) the following investigations were performed:
In cooperation with CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory the following work has been carried out:
A general model of the problem for reconstruction of the events obtained at the accelerators' experiments, has been complete. On its basis a library of base classes for the STAR experiment has been designed. The model was presented at the "US HENP ROOT Users Workshop" (http://runiicomputing.fnal.gov/root/) and at a meeting of the STAR Experiment Collaboration BNL (http://sol.star.bnl.gov/~fine/Publications/STARJuly99/Meeting/).
All the designed program products including the ROOT package and the software for the STAR experiment have been installed at JINR.
An automated system for administrating the computer complex in the research centre of Rossendorf (Germany) has been realized in the framework of cooperation and usage of some elements of the Java technology.
A protocol of cooperation with the University of Sofia in the area of application of such technologies has been signed.
In accordance with an agreement between JINR and the Research Centre Rossendorf, joint work was conducted on the project "Zentrale Nutzerdatenbank" (Users Data Bank). The purpose of the project is the creation of an automated system of administrating a computer complex by using WWW technologies as a tool of access via the Internet to the database ORACLE.
In frames of these activities a new concept of a computer program for registration of users and work groups on the NT platform has been worked out. This concept takes a unified approach (and a unified program code as an ideal) to registration of users on any POSIX - compatible platforms based on utilizing a centralized database for users and a unified (using the HTTP protocol) procedure for access to it.
A possibility was studied for a unified (standard) approach to the development of an automated procedure for registration of users within the POSIX specifications.
Within the cooperation with the Technical University of Cosice, Slovakia, a study has been conducted in the area of applying a wavelet transformation. A new promising tool has been developed for a description of de-noised signals obtained by wavelet shrinking due to the criterion introduced . An algorithm for a numerical solution of the inverse problem for two-dimensional Shrodinger equation has been worked out. The problem reduces to reconstruction of a symmetric five-diagonal M*N matrix with a given spectrum and given first N components for each of basic eigenvectors. But in difference with one-dimensional case all N components can not be chosen arbitrary. It is stated that they must satisfy (N-1)2(M-1) additional conditions .
The investigation in the framework of "Agreement for co-operation in the field of Applied Mathematics and Mathematical and Computational Physics, concluded between JINR and the University of Cape Town (South Africa)", and "Joint Research Project on Nonlinear Structures in Novel Magnetic Materials and Optical Transmission Lines", was continued. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis of Nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLS), has been performed. This equation finds a number of applications in the condensed matter and nonlinear optics models, superconduction theory; it describes, particularly, properties of optical telecommunications, magnetic materials to microwave fields, etc. Original results on existence and properties of NLS solitons, were obtained (regions of existence, bifurcations, stability, bounding of solitons etc.) .
© Laboratory of Information Technologies, JINR, Dubna, 2000