Formation and development
Techniques and Automation
( since 2000 - LIT )
In the late 50s academician N. Bogoliubov organized a
mathematical group at the Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. Later
on this group moved to LCTA and became its "brain" centre. This
mathematical group was reinforced with aptitude specialists and
became a basis for two leading scientific departments. These
departments delt with the development of mathematical simulation
methods for different nuclear physical processes, the creation of
extended programming systems based on standard algorithmic
languages for processing a great amount of experimental and
theoretical data and algebraic computations applied to quantum
field calculations of theorists.
The Laboratory of Computing Techniques and Automation was
founded in 1966 by resolutions of the 20-th Session of the JINR
Scientific Council and the Committee of Plenipotentiaries. It was
organized on the initiative of academician N. N. Bogoliubov, JINR
Director, on the base of the Institute's Computing Centre as well
as experimental data processing and automation departments of LHE
By the JINR order No.149 of August 19,1966, the LCTA was
- comprehensive development of Computing Techniques and
programming aspects at JINR such as automation principles of
experimental data processing and mathematical calculations for
theoretical and experimental physical research;
- maintenance of the entire computer complex for experimental
data processing and, primarily, measurements of the pictures
obtained from the bubble and spark chambers at JINR and at the
accelerator in Serpukhov;
- support of communications and joint works coordination of JINR
Member-State institutes on the issues of computing, programming
and further development of data processing and other automation
- coordination of principle works on creation and development of
measuring centres in the JINR laboratories and promotion of
computers in experimental methods;
The nearest objectives for 1966-1967 were formulated in the
order as follows:
- - design and development of scanning devices and means of
communication of computers with experimental installations at
- - mathematical processing of the experimental data obtained
in other research laboratories;
- - creation of the measuring and computing complex at JINR;
- - maintenance and, if necessary, modernization of LCTA computers
and JINR measuring centres;
- - installation of the HPD complex;
- - organization of the institute centre for the measurement of
The list of the objectives shows the problems to be solved by
LCTA at the primary stage of its formation 30 years ago. LCTA
consisted of 7 main departments then :
- the department of basic machines (mainframes);
- measuring centres of laboratories;
- the automation department where scanning devices were designed;
- mathematical methods of data processing;
- computational mathematics;
- the department of film information processing (data handling
- the engineering division (technical and environmental service).
Under the chairmanship of a JINR Vice-Director a Coordination
Council was established consisting of the laboratories'
representatives for coordinating works on automation and computing
- considered topical plans of the JINR laboratories in the domain
of computing and automation facilities to coordinate all works
carried out at JINR in this sphere;
- distributed the budget of computer time between the laboratories;
- distributed pictures processing resources;
- considered the issues of purchasing the equipment required
to maintain the automation and computing techniques.
A Corresponding Member of the USSR AS M.G.Mescheryakov
was elected as LCTA Director. Candidate of Technical
Sciences Georgij Ivanovich Zabijakin and Candidate of Physics and
Mathematics N.N. Govorun became his deputies in scientific work.
In 1988 Prof. N.N. Govorun, a Corresponding Member of the USSR
Academy of Sciences, became LCTA Director.
Rudolf Pose, Vladimir Penev, Aleksandr Andreevich Karlov,
Sergei Schelev, Zoltan Zamori, Zbignew Hoffman, Mikhael Suk,
Nikolai Angelov were subsequently selected to the post of the LCTA
From 1989 to 2000, the Laboratory was headed by professor Rudolf Pose, and
Vice Directors of Scientific work were professor Igor Victorovich Puzynin
and Vladimir Vasilievich Korenkov, Candidate of Physics and
The LCTA mathematicians headed by Prof. Zhidkov and
Prof. Puzynin have formed a scientific trend related to solving the
non-linear problems of physics. Within this trend they've performed
investigations recognized in many scientific centres worldwide and
established a scientific school a distinctive feature of which is
in the conjunction of theoretical studies and their numerical
realization in the modern computing techniques.
Works on creation and development of the JINR Central
Computing Complex were rapidly advanced. Almost at the same time in
1967-1968 the CDC-1604 computers and BESM-6 were installed. For a
long time the CDC-1604 was used in HPD automatic machine control,
and the BESM-6 served as a centre of the JINR Computing complex.
The software support and the equipment delivered together with
the BESM-6 machine did not fully conform to the requirements of the
JINR Central Computing Complex, so the group headed by N.N. Govorun
began working on its improvement.
In 1968 an International team of programmers from Russia,
Germany, Hungary and Korea led by I.N. Silin
and V.P. Shirikov joined their efforts and prepared a first version of the Fortran
compilar which became the basis of a complete programming system
and an own version of the efficient operating system "Dubna". A
group of the engineers improved a spare channel to hook up eight
additional fast communication lines with a throughput of 500
KB/sec, doubled the size of operating memory, connected magnetic
disks and standard magnetic tapes. The fulfillment of these works
allowed to make a hierarchical structure of the computing complex
when the remote BESM-4 type computers were connected to the BESM-6,
Minsk, I/O stations on the base of minicomputers of M-6000 type,TPA
etc.. In 1972 a new CDC-6200 computer was installed in the Central
Computing Complex which was later upgraded to the CDC-6500. This
computer was similar to CERN computers. It provided a high-order
precision for scientific calculations and had two central
Because of the growing number of users simultaneously working
on the BESM-6 and the CDC computers, a unified terminal access
system has been installed for these two computers. INTERCOM
became the input language of this system.
The first computers of the unified system ( ES-computers compatible to IBM seria 360 ) appeared in 1980s.
The experienced and high-skilled system analysts and engineers
successfully overcame the difficulties as regards to the
techniques. Due to the TERM subsystem allowing to expand OS ES
capabilities and specially designed concentrator computers, the ES
series were equipped with terminals.
In 1983 construction on the general network structures for the
unified high-speed communication media for computers and terminals
started. In 1985 a JINR terminal network JINET (Joint Institute
Network) was put into operation. A 75-ohm coaxile cable (of 12 km
length) became a transmitting media basis. Software support of the
network equipment for the JINR local computing network was
completely worked out at LCTA Scientific Department on
development and operation of the mathematical and software support
led by prof. V.P. Shirikov. The network JINET became the abonent
of the international computer network through the packets
communication centre in Moscow All-Union Research Institute of
Applied Automation Systems.
Since late 80s organization began on functioning at the same
time the network JINET and the high-speed network ETHERNET.
By the end of 1989 in LCTA on the cable of the new network two
VAX-8350 computers were put into operation.
In 1990 the high-speed (up to 10 MB/sec) ETHERNET left the
LCTA building and spread all over the half of the Institute site.
Immediately after appearing e-mail in Russia, a regional free
RelCom network node was first created at JINR, Dubna. Integration
problems of the mail-node and its existence in JINET and later on
in ETHERNET have been solved. In the first half of 90-th years, two satellite
channels ( to Germany and Italy ) were created, which connected JINR local
network to international High Energy Physics Network ( HEPNET ) and Internet,
increasing the facilities of existing terrestrial Internet link .
For many years at LCTA the automatic and semiautomatic systems
(HPD, AELT, Spiral Reader) were under development for scanning and
measurement of the chamber photographs, that were the main source
for physical results in High Energy Physics for years.
The work resulted in the establishment of a powerful centre
for film processing. It has provided mass chamber pictures
processing, now to a lesser degree than several years ago though.
The CERN engineering staff provided a great support in the course
of the creation of the centre.
The Laboratory provided software support for electronic
experiments of the charged particle accelerators.
The LCTA staff paid much attention to development of the
chamber film processing tools as well as introduction of modern
software, program libraries developed in the Institute and other
centres, in the JINR Member-State Institutes.
Symposia, conferences, and schools are regularly held at LCTA
on different problems, such as computer application to scientific
research, automation of physical research, simulation and
experimental data processing, computer algebra etc.. In these
projects JINR Member-State specialists are working together with
scientists from other countries and international research centres.
There is a Scientific Council which approves degrees of doctor
of science and candidate of science at LCTA:
- 01.01.07. - computational mathematics;
- 05.13.11. - mathematical and software support of computers,
complexes, systems and networks;
- 05.13.18. - applications of computing techniques,
mathematical simulation and
mathematical methods for scientific collaborations.
For many years the Scientific Council was led by Corresponding
Members of the USSR AS M.G. Mescheryakov (chairman) and N.N. Govorun
(vice-chairman). At present Prof. E.P. Zhidkov is the chairman of
Scientific Council and Prof. V.P. Shirikov is the vice-chairman of
Since the year of 1970 the recommendations of experts have
made the basis of the LCTA topical plans for research and
international cooperation on developing the problems of the JINR
measuring and computing complex.
In the long-term planning of research under way at LCTA
financial means of JINR and accessibility of new modern computers
have been taken into account.
In the early nineties a new conception of the LCTA development
has to be worked out. This conception was worked out and approved
by the JINR Scientific Council in 1993.
In response to the extensive development of communication means, in the
last few years one has observed a turn to a distributed computing, global
information society and development of information technologies. In 2000,
the 88-th session of the JINR Scientific Council passed a decision to reorganize the Laboratory of Computing Techniques and Automation (LCTA) into
the Laboratory of Information Technologies (LIT). The main LIT tasks
are to provide operation and development of the JINR of the computing and networking infrastructure.
From 2000 to 2003 Professor Igor Victorovich Puzynin was LIT Director, and deputy
directors of scientific work were Victor Vladimirovich Ivanov - Doctor of
Physics and Mathematics, Vladimir Vasilievich Korenkov - Candidate of
Physics and Mathematics, and Alexander Polanskii - Candidate of Physics and
At present, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics Victor Vladimirovich Ivanov - is LIT Director, and deputy
directors of scientific work are Petr Valentinovich Zrelov - Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, Vladimir Vasilievich Korenkov - Candidate of
Physics and Mathematics, and Gheorghe Adam - Doctor of Physics and Mathematics.