Formation and development
Techniques and Automation
( since 2000 - LIT )
In the late 50s academician N. Bogoliubov organized a
mathematical group at the Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. Later on
this group moved to LCTA and became its "brain" centre. This mathematical
group was reinforced with aptitude specialists and became a basis for
two leading scientific departments. These departments delt with the development
of mathematical simulation methods for different nuclear physical processes,
the creation of extended programming systems based on standard algorithmic
languages for processing a great amount of experimental and theoretical
data and algebraic computations applied to quantum field calculations
The Laboratory of Computing Techniques and Automation was founded in
1966 by resolutions of the 20-th Session of the JINR Scientific Council
and the Committee of Plenipotentiaries. It was organized on the initiative
of academician N. N. Bogoliubov, JINR Director, on the base of the Institute's
Computing Centre as well as experimental data processing and automation
departments of LHE and LNP. By the JINR order No.149 of August 19,1966,
the LCTA was oblidged to:
- comprehensive development of Computing Techniques and programming
aspects at JINR such as automation principles of experimental data processing
and mathematical calculations for theoretical and experimental physical
- maintenance of the entire computer complex for experimental data processing
and, primarily, measurements of the pictures obtained from the bubble
and spark chambers at JINR and at the accelerator in Serpukhov;
- support of communications and joint works coordination of JINR Member-State
institutes on the issues of computing, programming and further development
of data processing and other automation aspects;
- coordination of principle works on creation and development of measuring
centres in the JINR laboratories and promotion of computers in experimental
The nearest objectives for 1966-1967 were formulated in the order as
- - design and development of scanning devices and means of communication
of computers with experimental installations at JINR;
- - mathematical processing of the experimental data obtained in other
- - creation of the measuring and computing complex at JINR;
- - maintenance and, if necessary, modernization of LCTA computers
and JINR measuring centres;
- - installation of the HPD complex;
- - organization of the institute centre for the measurement of film
The list of the objectives shows the problems to be solved
by LCTA at the primary stage of its formation 30 years ago. LCTA consisted
of 7 main departments then :
- the department of basic machines (mainframes);
- measuring centres of laboratories;
- the automation department where scanning devices were designed;
- mathematical methods of data processing;
- computational mathematics;
- the department of film information processing (data handling department);
- the engineering division (technical and environmental service).
Under the chairmanship of a JINR Vice-Director a Coordination
Council was established consisting of the laboratories' representatives
for coordinating works on automation and computing technigues which:
- considered topical plans of the JINR laboratories in the
domain of computing and automation facilities to coordinate all works
carried out at JINR in this sphere;
- distributed the budget of computer time between the laboratories;
- distributed pictures processing resources;
- considered the issues of purchasing the equipment required
to maintain the automation and computing techniques.
A Corresponding Member of the USSR AS M.G. Mescheryakov was elected as LCTA Director. Candidate of Technical Sciences
Georgij Ivanovich Zabijakin and Candidate of Physics and Mathematics N.N. Govorun became his deputies in scientific work. In 1988 Prof. N.N. Govorun, a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, became
Rudolf Pose, Vladimir Penev, Aleksandr Andreevich Karlov, Sergei Schelev, Zoltan Zamori, Zbignew Hoffman, Mikhael Suk, Nikolai Angelov
were subsequently selected to the post of the LCTA Deputy Director.
From 1989 to 2000, the Laboratory was headed by professor
Rudolf Pose, and Vice Directors of Scientific work were professor Igor Victorovich Puzynin and
Vladimir Vasilievich Korenkov, Candidate of Physics and Mathematics.
The LCTA mathematicians headed by professor E.P. Zhidkov and Prof. I.V. Puzynin have formed a scientific trend related to solving the non-linear problems of physics. Within this trend they've
performed investigations recognized in many scientific centres worldwide
and established a scientific school a distinctive feature of which is in the conjunction of theoretical studies and their numerical realization in the modern computing techniques.
Works on creation and development of
the JINR Central Computing Complex were rapidly advanced. Almost at the same
time in 1967-1968 the CDC-1604 computers and BESM-6 were installed. For a long
time the CDC-1604 was used in HPD automatic machine control, and the BESM-6
served as a centre of the JINR Computing complex. The software support and the
equipment delivered together with the BESM-6 machine did not fully conform to
the requirements of the JINR Central Computing Complex, so the group headed
by N.N. Govorun began working on its improvement. In 1968 an International team
of programmers from Russia, Germany, Hungary and Korea led by I.N. Silin and V.P. Shirikov joined their efforts and prepared a first version of the Fortran compilar which became the basis of a complete programming system and an own
version of the efficient operating system "Dubna". A group of the
engineers improved a spare channel to hook up eight additional fast communication
lines with a throughput of 500 KB/sec, doubled the size of operating memory,
connected magnetic disks and standard magnetic tapes. The fulfillment of these
works allowed to make a hierarchical structure of the computing complex when
the remote BESM-4 type computers were connected to the BESM-6, Minsk, I/O stations
on the base of minicomputers of M-6000 type,TPA etc.. In 1972 a new CDC-6200
computer was installed in the Central Computing Complex which was later upgraded
to the CDC-6500. This computer was similar to CERN computers. It provided a
high-order precision for scientific calculations and had two central processors.
Because of the growing number of users simultaneously working on the BESM-6
and the CDC computers, a unified terminal access system has been installed for
these two computers. INTERCOM became the input language of this system.
The first computers of the unified system ( ES-computers
compatible to IBM seria 360 ) appeared in 1980s. The experienced and high-skilled
system analysts and engineers successfully overcame the difficulties as
regards to the techniques. Due to the TERM subsystem allowing to expand
OS ES capabilities and specially designed concentrator computers, the
ES series were equipped with terminals. In 1983 construction on the general
network structures for the unified high-speed communication media for
computers and terminals started. In 1985 a JINR terminal network JINET
(Joint Institute Network) was put into operation. A 75-ohm coaxile cable
(of 12 km length) became a transmitting media basis. Software support
of the network equipment for the JINR local computing network was completely
worked out at LCTA Scientific Department on development and operation
of the mathematical and software support led by prof. V.P. Shirikov. The network JINET became the abonent of the international
computer network through the packets communication centre in Moscow All-Union
Research Institute of Applied Automation Systems. Since late 80s organization
began on functioning at the same time the network JINET and the high-speed
network ETHERNET. By the end of 1989 in LCTA on the cable of the new network
two VAX-8350 computers were put into operation. In 1990 the high-speed
(up to 10 MB/sec) ETHERNET left the LCTA building and spread all over
the half of the Institute site. Immediately after appearing e-mail in
Russia, a regional free RelCom network node was first created at JINR,
Dubna. Integration problems of the mail-node and its existence in JINET
and later on in ETHERNET have been solved. In the first half of 90-th
years, two satellite channels ( to Germany and Italy ) were created, which
connected JINR local network to international High Energy Physics Network
( HEPNET ) and Internet, increasing the facilities of existing terrestrial
Internet link .
For many years at LCTA the automatic and semiautomatic
systems (HPD, AELT, Spiral Reader) were under development for scanning
and measurement of the chamber photographs, that were the main source
for physical results in High Energy Physics for years. The work resulted in the establishment of a powerful centre for film processing. It has provided mass chamber pictures processing, now to a lesser degree than
several years ago though. The CERN engineering staff provided a great
support in the course of the creation of the centre.
The Laboratory provided software support for electronic
experiments of the charged particle accelerators.
The LCTA staff paid much attention to development of the
chamber film processing tools as well as introduction of modern software,
program libraries developed in the Institute and other centres, in the
JINR Member-State Institutes.
Symposia, conferences, and schools are regularly held
at LCTA on different problems, such as computer application to scientific
research, automation of physical research, simulation and experimental
data processing, computer algebra etc.. In these projects JINR Member-State
specialists are working together with scientists from other countries
and international research centres.
There is a Scientific Council which approves degrees of doctor of science
and candidate of science at LCTA:
- 01.01.07. - computational mathematics;
- 05.13.11. - mathematical and software support of computing machines, complexes
and computer networks;
- 05.13.18. - mathematical simulation, numerical methods and software complexes.
For many years the Scientific Council was led by Corresponding
Members of the USSR AS M.G. Mescheryakov (chairman) and N.N. Govorun (vice-chairman). At present Prof. V.V. Ivanov is the chairman of Scientific Council,
Prof. I.V. Puzynin and Prof. V.P. Shirikov are the vice-chairmans of the Council.
Since the year of 1970 the recommendations of experts
have made the basis of the LCTA topical plans for research and international
cooperation on developing the problems of the JINR measuring and computing
complex. In the long-term planning of research under way at LCTA financial
means of JINR and accessibility of new modern computers have been taken
into account. In the early nineties a new conception of the LCTA development
has to be worked out. This conception was worked out and approved by the
JINR Scientific Council in 1993.
In response to the extensive development of communication
means, in the last few years one has observed a turn to a distributed
computing, global information society and development of information technologies.
In 2000, the 88-th session of the JINR Scientific Council passed a decision
to reorganize the Laboratory of Computing Techniques and Automation (LCTA)
into the Laboratory of Information Technologies (LIT). The main LIT tasks
are to provide operation and development of the JINR of the computing
and networking infrastructure.
From 2000 to 2003 Professor Igor Victorovich Puzynin was LIT Director, and deputy directors of scientific work were Victor Vladimirovich Ivanov - Doctor of Science in Physics and Mathematics, Vladimir Vasilievich Korenkov and Alexander Polanski - Candidates of Science in Physics and Mathematics.
From 2003 to 2013 Doctor of Science in Physics and Mathematics Victor Vladimirovich Ivanov was as LIT Director, and deputy directors of scientific work were Petr Valentinovich Zrelov and Vladimir Vasilievich Korenkov - Candidates of Science in Physics and Mathematics, from 2004 to 2008 Doctor of Science in Physics and Mathematics Gheorghe Adam and since 2009
Sanda-Anca Adam - Doctor of science in Physics and Mathematics.
From February 2013 Doctor of Technical Sciences Vladimir Vasilievich Korenkov is LIT Director, and deputy directors of scientific work are Tatiana Aleksandrovna Strizh - Candidate of Science in Physics and Mathematics and Gheorghe Adam - Doctor of Science in Physics and Mathematics.